Three quarks for Muster Mark

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In a little over a century, we’ve discovered that what we once thought was the fundamental, smallest unit of matter — the atom — is actually made up of even smaller particles: nuclei and electrons. The nuclei themselves are made of protons and neutrons, and those protons and neutrons are made of still smaller particles: quarks and gluons.

Those particles — quarks, gluons, and electrons — are just some of the particles that cannot be broken up into smaller constituents to the best of our knowledge. All told, when we count up the fundamental particles that we know of, the ones that cannot be broken apart into anything smaller or lighter, we count a number of different types:

— six quarks (and their antiquark counterparts), each coming in three different color possibilities and two different spins,

— three charged leptons, the electron, muon and tau (and their anti-lepton counterparts), each allowed two different spin states,

— three neutral leptons, the neutrinos, along with the three anti-neutrinos, where the neutrinos all have a left-handed spin and the antis have a right-handed spin,

— the gluons, which all have two different spin states and which come in eight color varieties,

— the photon, which has two different allowable spins,

— the W-and-Z bosons, which come in three types (the W+, W-, and Z) and have three allowable spin states apiece (-1, 0, and +1), and

— the Higgs boson, which exists in only one state.

That’s the Standard Model of elementary particles. […] However, we know there must be more to the Universe, as this doesn’t account for dark matter, for one. Furthermore, there are theoretical limitations and inconsistencies to the physics we presently know and so we suspect there’s more physics beyond the Standard Model to explain it.

{ Ethan Siegel | Continue reading }

You’ve changed. That sparkle in your eyes has gone.

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Merely changing the face of a model in an ad increases the number of potential purchasers by as much as 15% (8% on average), according to a study being published by the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences.

{ Informs | Continue reading }

art { Martial Raysse, Life is so complex, 1966 | more }

related { Real-time makeup using projection mapping }

Every day, the same, again

435.jpg Three Swiss couples copulating in a van fined for not wearing seatbelts

Google has to reinforce its internet cables because sharks keep biting them

New Yorkers go to bed earlier than people in Paris, Beijing, Moscow, Dubai, Tokyo and Madrid, study

Why Some People Only Need Five Hours’ Sleep a Night

The Real Secret to Detecting Lies (And It’s Not Body Language) [more]

How to help an anxious interviewee - be mean to them

Mother’s diet modifies her child’s DNA

Love makes sex better for most women

Study reveals that men experience orgasm during sexual activity with a familiar partner 85% of the time on average, compared with 63% of the time for women.

Representing Sex in the Brain, One Module at a Time

Scientists may have identified an intermediate-sized black hole for the very first time

Two Stanford researchers have discovered that a species of harvester ants determine how many foragers to send out of the nest in much the same way that Internet protocols discover how much bandwidth is available for the transfer of data. The researchers are calling it the “anternet.” [Thanks Tim]

The Slack software borrows from social sites such as Twitter and Facebook to turn the middle of your screen into a stream of messages. E-mail is dead—or at least that’s what Silicon Valley is banking on.

Google’s driverless cars designed to exceed speed limit

Managers of Walgreen’s drugstores in the US “often retire in their 40s.” […] In India, hair dressers can earn more than employees in the software industry.

French treasure hunter finds 50 pieces of jewellery on Mont Blanc from Air India crash 48 years ago

The “Blue Star” solution activates the physical memory of blood through its contact with the remaining DNA proteins on the walls

With a local anesthesia, he operated himself to remove the appendix.

Maine Man, 19, Poses For New Mug Shot Wearing T-Shirt With Photo Of His Old Mug Shot

Justin Bieber Tartare with Ham

selling positive pregnancy urine - $45

Yes, and plum pudding and gooseberry pie

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[They] analyzed a database of 6,500 restaurant menus describing 650,000 dishes from across the U.S. Among their findings: fancy restaurants, not surprisingly, use fancier—and longer—words than cheaper restaurants do (think accompaniments and decaffeinated coffee, not sides and decaf). Jurafsky writes that “every increase of one letter in the average length of words describing a dish is associated with an increase of 69 cents in the price of that dish.” […]

Cheaper establishments also use terms like ripe and fresh, which Jurafsky calls “status anxiety” words. Thomas Keller’s Per Se, after all, would never use fresh—that much is taken for granted—but Subway would.

{ The Atlantic | Continue reading }

photo { Maurizio Di Iorio }

related { Guests given the numeral-only menu (00.) spent significantly more than those who received a menu with prices showing a dollar sign ($00.00) }

You have corrupted my imagination and inflamed my blood

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Regular exercise may alter how a person experiences pain, according to a new study. The longer we continue to work out, the new findings suggest, the greater our tolerance for discomfort can grow.

{ NY Times | Continue reading }

La tristesse durera toujours

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In two longitudinal studies, university students, their roommates, and parents assessed the quality and forecast the longevity of the students’ dating relationships. […] Students assessed their relationships more positively, focusing primarily on the strengths of their relationships, and made more optimistic predictions than did parents and roommates. Although students were more confident in their predictions, their explicit forecasts tended to be less accurate than those of the two observer groups. Students, however, possessed information that could have yielded more accurate forecasts.

{ SAGE | Continue reading }

related { peers tend to avoid the degree of overoptimism so often seen in self-predictions }

photo { Antoine D’Agata }

In the morning signorina we’ll go walking

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Although many studies have reported that women’s preferences for masculine physical characteristics in men change systematically during the menstrual cycle, the hormonal mechanisms underpinning these changes are currently poorly understood. Previous studies investigating the relationships between measured hormone levels and women’s masculinity preferences tested only judgments of men’s facial attractiveness. Results of these studies suggested that preferences for masculine characteristics in men’s faces were related to either women’s estradiol or testosterone levels.

To investigate the hormonal correlates of within-woman variation in masculinity preferences further, here we measured 62 women’s salivary estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone levels and their preferences for masculine characteristics in men’s voices in five weekly test sessions. Multilevel modeling of these data showed that changes in salivary estradiol were the best predictor of changes in women’s preferences for vocal masculinity.

These results complement other recent research implicating estradiol in women’s mate preferences, attention to courtship signals, sexual motivation, and sexual strategies, and are the first to link women’s voice preferences directly to measured hormone levels.

{ Hormones and Behavior }

related { Evidence to Suggest that Women’s Sexual Behavior is Influenced by Hip Width Rather than Waist-to-Hip Ratio }

Center stage on the mic

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Peter Drucker once observed that, “Much of what we call management consists of making it difficult for people to work.” […]

Bain & Company studied a sample of big firms, finding that their managers spent 15% of their time in meetings, a share that has risen every year since 2008. Many of these meetings have no clear purpose.

The higher up you go, the worse it is. Senior executives spend two full days a week in meetings with three or more colleagues.

{ The Economist | Continue reading }

Every day, the same, again

61.jpg Alleged phone thief calls 911 because victim won’t leave her alone

About 100,000 German employees can now choose to have all their incoming emails automatically deleted when they are on holiday so they do not return to a bulging in-box.

Girls Gone Wild founder Joe Francis said he can’t return the vehicles, a 2007 Cadillac Escalade and a 2012 Bentley Flying Spur, because a strip-club owner in Mexico—angry that several Girls Gone Wild promotions fell through— took them.

The evolution of PMS: It may exist to break up infertile relationships

Is the absence of biological fathers related to their daughters’ earlier age at menarche?

The stability of your personality peaks in mid-life, then grows increasingly wobbly again

Dartmouth researchers demonstrate in a new study that a previously understudied part of the brain, the retrosplenial cortex, is essential for forming the basis for contextual memories, which help you to recall events ranging from global disasters to where you parked your car.

Angry faces increase the effectiveness of threats

New study finds that antiperspirant deodorants alter your armpit bacteria and may actually worsen body odor as a result.

Is there a cannabis epidemic model? Evidence from France, Germany and USA

People fake to look authentic on social media

Solving the puzzle of why Finns have the highest IQ, but one of the lowest number of Nobel prizes in Europe

People recall more and learn better when they expect to teach that information to another person, a new study finds.

Starting removal of John Hancock Building west antenna

I’m not here to make friends

‘No occurrence is sole and solitary, but is merely a repetition of a thing which has happened before, and perhaps often.’ —Mark Twain

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The systematic biases seen in people’s probability judgments are typically taken as evidence that people do not use the rules of probability theory when reasoning about probability but instead use heuristics, which sometimes yield reasonable judgments and sometimes yield systematic biases. This view has had a major impact in economics, law, medicine, and other fields; indeed, the idea that people cannot reason with probabilities has become a truism. We present a simple alternative to this view, where people reason about probability according to probability theory but are subject to random variation or noise in the reasoning process. […] Results suggest that people’s probability judgments embody the rules of probability theory and that biases in those judgments are due to the effects of random noise.

{ APA/PsycNET | Continue reading }

Every day, the same, again

5.gif Researchers Reconstruct Speech Recorded in the Vibrations of a Potato Chip Bag

Science is proving that many other tissues than the tongue can taste what you ingest

Do Narcissists Know They’re Narcissists?

Time Flies: Science offers ideas about how to reconstruct that feeling of long, slow days you remember from when you were a kid.

Three Perimeter Institute researchers have a new idea about what might have come before the big bang. What we perceive as the big bang, they argue, could be the three-dimensional “mirage” of a collapsing star in a universe profoundly different than our own.

Honda is one of the few multinational companies that has succeeded at globalization. They’ve never lost money. They’ve been profitable every year. And they’ve been around since 1949, 1950.

Car Security Is Likely to Worsen, Researchers Say and Hackers Demand Automakers Get Serious About Security

The Brazilian Bus Magnate Who’s Buying Up All the World’s Vinyl Records [NY Times]

Stephen King has always disliked Stanley Kubrick’s film: What Stanley Kubrick got wrong about “The Shining”

For this show, Williams has insisted that there be no wall text. Williams has also insisted that all the photos at MoMA be hung below normal height. Christopher Williams at MoMA

In an official partnership with the New York City Department of Transportation, Ryan McGinness has erected 50 signs throughout Manhattan.

How to Use Your Cat to Hack Your Neighbor’s Wi-Fi

Chef Grills Steak, Volcano-Style, With Molten Lava.

Real Cigarette Reviews

Statues Taking Selfies

Two adult sex toys having automated sex with each other

Don’t let go of me (Grip my hips and move me)

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Why do fingers get wrinkly in the water? […]

A hypothesis has been proposed which suggests that the wrinkling might be an evolutionary adaptation to make the handling of objects underwater easier. Wrinkling creates a kind of drainage path for water and so enhances the grip on an object (this is called a ‘rain tread’ hypothesis). In order to test if this hypothesis is true Kareklas et al. have recruited volunteers and tested their ability to transfer wet objects when the fingers are wrinkled and not. […]

20 participants had to transfer glass marbles from one container to another in two different conditions (1) take the marble from a container with water pass it through a small hole and put into an empty container and (2) take the marble from a container without water pass it through a small hole and put into an empty container. […]

When the marble ball was dry there was no difference between the transfer time with wrinkly and smooth fingers. However, when the marble was wet then on average it took 12% less time to transfer the object with wrinkly fingers. Therefore, the study concluded that the wrinkling of fingers improves the handling of wet objects (which supports the rain tread hypothesis). Why are our fingers not always wrinkled then? In paper’s discussion Kareklas et al. suggest that there potentially are some fitness trade-offs to the wrinkly fingers. Maybe wrinkled fingers are less sensitive to pain, pressure, heat etc. and are therefore damaged easier, which would explain why it is not good to always have those wrinkles.

{ The Question Gene | Continue reading }

The work done in this room lies at the heart of a department that handles some of the UK’s most cutting-edge research on forensics and anatomy. […]

The hand is Meadows’ area of focus. Variations in scars, skin pigmentation, the smallest nooks and crannies of the fingernail and, most importantly, superficial vein patterns: all of these can build a body of evidence and allow the police to identify an offender in an incriminating photograph. “The back of the hand is part of the anatomy that an offender is quite happy to have in an image, whereas they wouldn’t necessarily want their face captured,” Meadows says. In 2009, Cahid’s work was instrumental in the Neil Strachan case, part of Scotland’s biggest paedophile ring. His unusually distorted lunula (the white half moon at the bottom of a nail) helped identify and convict him.

Meadows and her colleagues have built up the UK’s only database of the hand’s vein patterns, with around 800 samples. Of the 40 or so cases they have worked on, their data have resulted in over 80 per cent of suspects changing their plea.

{ FT | Continue reading }